China is World’s biggest manufacturer and it has huge Defence Force as well. It is World’s Biggest Economy as well (as per PPP) and may overcome USA on nominal basis very soon. However China is also famous for its Bullying, it has border disputes with almost every Neighbor.
China’s Modus Operandi is very simple, it always provoke its opponent and then raise an intense Propaganda Warfare to let others moral down. It has of happened many a times and several Neighbors have become the victim of this Strategy of China.
However, there is an instance when China’s strategy was misfired horribly, it could have caused a Nuclear War. We are talking about the China-Soviet conflict in 1969. It was a seven-month military conflict between both the nations in 1969.
This conflict was so serious that once it was thought that it could cause a Nuclear War and could start Third World War. It was occurred in March 1969 in Zhenbao (Damansky) Island on the Ussuri (Wusuli) River.
Cause of Conflict?
The major reason for this conflict was the dispute over Chinese Eastern Railway (CER). According to the 1924 agreement between Soviet Russia and China, this Rail route was considered joint property. The route even had its own separate flag, “compiled” from the Chinese five-colored flag at the top and the Soviet red flag at the bottom. However Chinese did not like that in the second half of the 1920s, the CER saw declining profits and became unprofitable because of Soviet Russia’s position and World War.
For Soviet Union the reason for conflict was Zhang Xueliang, the ruler of Manchuria. The Chinese Eastern Railway ran through Manchuria and it was an independent territory at that point of time. Soviet Union was in impression that Western Powers were influencing the Manchurian ruler to act against Soviet Union.
The Manchus put up more than 300,000 soldiers to fight against Soviet Russia, on the other hand only 16,000 Soviet soldiers took part in the fighting. However, the Soviets were far better armed and actively used their Air force.
Soviets attacked the Chinese on 12th October 1929 and destroyed their 5 Ships. After that, Soviet troops landed from the ships and with the support of the Red Army, the artillery captured the Chinese city of Lahasusu.
Almost the same happened during the Fugdinskaya operation on October 30, 1929. At the Songhua River estuary, eight Soviet ships finished off the Chinese Sungari Flotilla. The Soviet Army occupied the city of Fujin and held on to it until November 2, 1929, before returning to Soviet territory.
The military action, which continued until November 19, convinced the China of the moral and military-technical superiority of the Soviet troops. According to some estimates, the Chinese lost nearly two thousand people in the course of fighting, while more than 8,000 people were wounded. The Red Army lost around 281 people.
The Manchurian were so much threatened with all this and they quickly sought peace and, on December 22, 1929, an agreement was signed, it was agreed that CER should be jointly used by the USSR and China on the same terms.
Year 1969-Sino-Soviet border conflict, on the verge of a Nuclear War
It was the Cold-War Era and the World was divided into 2 Factions, either the ally of US or USSR. Never before had the two major world powers stood so close to a full-scale war, the consequences of which could have been catastrophic for both sides. In the battle for the Sino-Soviet border, 58 Soviet guards were killed and, according to various estimates, between 500 and 3,000 Chinese soldiers.
As early as the autumn of 1969, negotiations were held, as a result of which it was decided that the Chinese and Soviet border guards would remain on the banks of the Ussuri, without entering the Damanskii Island. In fact, it involved the transfer of the island to China. Legally, the island was passed over to the PRC in 1991.
A few months after the conflict on the Sino-Soviet border, the Chinese again tried by force to bully Soviet Union. On August 13, 1969 at 5.30 am, 150 Chinese troops invaded Soviet territory in the area of the Kazakh Zhalanashkol Lake.
The Soviet Amy tried their best to avoid hostilities and enter into negotiations until the last moment. The Chinese did not react and keep continuing their bully attitude. They took up defensive positions on the hill stone and began to dig. The border guards at the “Rodnikovaya” and “Zhalanashkol” outposts attacked the hill, supported by five armoured personnel carriers. Within hours, the height was freed of Chinese personnel and the attack repulsed. Two Soviet guards were killed. The Chinese lost 19 people.
Less than a month after the conflict, on September 11, 1969 in Beijing, Alexei Kosygin and Zhou Enlai agreed on measures to stop the clashes on the Russian-Chinese border. Since then, tensions in bilateral relations between the two countries began to decline.