Nationalism

Nana Fadnavis – A Man Who Defeated The British Twice With His Intelligence and Diplomacy, Prompting Them To Call Him The Maratha Machiavelli

Saga of fight for Independence!

Chapter 12: Nana Fadnavis

Nana Phadnavis a great Maratha, born as Balaji Janardan Bhanu, was an influential minister and statesman of the Maratha Empire during the Peshwa administration in Pune, India. James Grant Duff states that he was called “the Marattha Machiavelli” by the Europeans.

Balaji Janardan Bhanu was born in a Chitpavan Brahmin family in Satara in 1742 and was nicknamed ‘Nana’. His grandfather Balaji Mahadaji Bhanu had migrated from a village called Velas near Shrivardhan during the days of the First Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath Bhat.

Nana was inherited his grandfather’s name, keeping up with the tradition. The Peshwa treated him like family and extended to him the same facilities of education and diplomatic training as his sons, Vishwasrao, Madhavrao, and Narayanrao. He continued to be the Phadnavis, or the finance minister, for the Peshwa.

In 1761, Nana escaped to Pune from the Third Battle of Panipat and rose to great heights. He become a leading person directing the affairs of the Maratha Confederacy, although he was never a soldier himself. This was a period of political instability as one Peshwa was rapidly succeeded by another, and there were many controversial transfers of power. Nana Phadnavis played an important role in holding the Maratha Confederacy together in the midst of internal dissension and the growing power of the British East India Company.

The First Anglo-Maratha war ended in 1782 and for the next two decades there was no important war between the British and the Marathas.

These twenty years mark the rise and fall of Nana Fadnavis. Nana Fadnavis, one of the 12 conspirators (12 Bhai) was present in the Third Battle of Panipat. But he escaped death and fled from there. Under his leadership the Barabhai opposed the Raghunathrao and forestalled Narayanrao’s posthumous son Madhav Rao Narayan as Peshwa in 1774.

Nana’s administrative, diplomatic, and financial skills brought prosperity to the Maratha Empire and his management of external affairs kept the Maratha Empire away from the thrust of the British East India Company. He displayed his best warfare skills in various battles won by Maratha forces against the Nizam of Hyderabad, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan of Mysore, and the English Army.

After the death of Madhavrao Peshwa in 1772, his brother Narayanrao became Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. Narayan Rao (10 August 1755 – 30 August 1773) was the fifth Peshwa or ruler of the Maratha Empire from November 1772 until his murder by his palace guards in August 1773. Narayanrao’s widow, Gangabai, gave birth to a posthumous son, who was legal heir to the throne. The newborn infant was named ‘Sawai’ Madhavrao (Sawai means “One and a Quarter”). Twelve Maratha chiefs, led by Nana Phadnavis directed an effort to name the infant as the new Peshwa and rule under him as regents.

Nana Fadnavis never cared for positions or titles, for him the interests of the Maratha confederacy were supreme. At a time of chaos and anarchy, when selfish Maratha sardars were looking for their own interests, Fadnavis stood out as a beacon of integrity and selflessness.

The Britishers on the other hand feared Fadnavis, he was the only one in the Maratha empire who could read their motivations so well. They tried the tricks to remove Fadnavis and appoint some one more pliable in his place. However with the public and Ashta Pradhans, fully backing Fadnavis, they were unsuccessful in their attempts. When the scheming Raghoba tried to take Poona, with the help of the British, Fadnavis responded by forging an alliance with the Nizam and the Bhonsles of Satara against them.  Though the British signed a treaty with the Marathas at Surat in 1775, they could not take advantage of it, with Fadnavis at the helm.  In desperation they forged another treaty at  Poona in 1777, with the sole objective of removing Fadnavis.  However Nana counter attacked the British forces and inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 1779 at Poona.

Knowing that the British gave no important to treaties, Nana Fadnavis forged an alliance with the Nizam, Hyder Ali, the Nawab of Arcot and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam against them.  Knowing this meant the sure end of British rule in India, the then Governor Warren Hastings, applied his tactics of divide and rule, and got a treaty signed with Mahadji Shinde.  The British once again had to eat humble pie, thanks to the tactics of Nana Fadnavis.  It was due to the efforts of Fadnavis, that the Maratha confederacy once again regained it’s power, and they became the protectors of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam too.

Source:

Nana Fadnavis- The Maratha Chanakya

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nana_Fadnavis

Chapter 1:
A Trading Corporation, Set foot in Hindusthan! Traders Backed By Money And Power, Conquered, Subjugated, And Plundered The Vast Land And Called It ‘India’!!!

Chapter 2:
One Man Stood Against The Betrayal Of The East India Company To Save His Motherland! Know The Story Of Maaveeran Alagumuthu Kone!

Chapter 3:
When Even Strongest Of Polingar Were Surrendering To British, The Ruler Of Nelkattunseval Fought Against Them Like A Tiger! Know The Story Of ‘Puli’ Thevar An Able Administrator And A Great Warrior!

Chapter 4:
The Story Of Veeramangai Velu Nachiyar! A Warrior Queen Who Not Just Fought Against The British But Also Defeated Them In The War!

Chapter 5:
Kuyili- The First Ever Suicide Bomber In History! She Was A Brave Commander And A Close Of Aid Of Velu Nachiyar! Her Fight Against The British And Her Sacrifice Still Remains Unknown!

Chapter 6:
Veera Pandya Kattabomman – The Legendary Warrior Who Was Publicly Hanged To Death By The The British East India Comany!

Chapter 7:
The Story of Maruthu Brothers! The Leaders Of South Indian Rebellion Against The British East India Company Who Were The First To Issue Declaration Of Independence!

Chapter 8:
The Kerala Simham – Pazhassi Raja! This Warrior King Defeated The Man Who Had Conquered Napoleon Bonaparte!

Chaper 9:
Jayee Rajguru – This Brave Son Of Mother India Was Executed By The British In Most Brutal Manner For Leading An Agitation Against Them!

Chapter 10:
The Story Of Jagabandhu Vidyadhar Who Led The Famous Paika Rebellion! The Fight Against The British East India Company!

Chapter 11:
Mahadaji Shinde A Mighty Maratha Warrior Who Defeated The British in Battle of Wadgaon!

Dr. Sindhu Prashanth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1:
A Trading Corporation, Set foot in Hindusthan! Traders Backed By Money And Power, Conquered, Subjugated, And Plundered The Vast Land And Called It ‘India’!!!

Chapter 2:
One Man Stood Against The Betrayal Of The East India Company To Save His Motherland! Know The Story Of Maaveeran Alagumuthu Kone!

Chapter 3:
When Even Strongest Of Polingar Were Surrendering To British, The Ruler Of Nelkattunseval Fought Against Them Like A Tiger! Know The Story Of ‘Puli’ Thevar An Able Administrator And A Great Warrior!

Chapter 4:
The Story Of Veeramangai Velu Nachiyar! A Warrior Queen Who Not Just Fought Against The British But Also Defeated Them In The War!

Chapter 5:
Kuyili- The First Ever Suicide Bomber In History! She Was A Brave Commander And A Close Of Aid Of Velu Nachiyar! Her Fight Against The British And Her Sacrifice Still Remains Unknown!

Chapter 6:
Veera Pandya Kattabomman – The Legendary Warrior Who Was Publicly Hanged To Death By The The British East India Comany!

Chapter 7:
The Story of Maruthu Brothers! The Leaders Of South Indian Rebellion Against The British East India Company Who Were The First To Issue Declaration Of Independence!

Chapter 8:
The Kerala Simham – Pazhassi Raja! This Warrior King Defeated The Man Who Had Conquered Napoleon Bonaparte!

Chaper 9:
Jayee Rajguru – This Brave Son Of Mother India Was Executed By The British In Most Brutal Manner For Leading An Agitation Against Them!

Chapter 10:
The Story Of Jagabandhu Vidyadhar Who Led The Famous Paika Rebellion! The Fight Against The British East India Company!

Chapter 11:
Mahadaji Shinde A Mighty Maratha Warrior Who Defeated The British in Battle of Wadgaon!

Dr. Sindhu Prashanth

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