Sindh is one of the world’s most ancient civilized and organized city of Indus Valley, which has seen many rise and fall. The signs of its ancient glory are still to be found in the relics of Anri, Kot Diji and Mohenjodaro.
The land adjacent to Indus River and the Thar Desert is one of the oldest inhabited regions in the world; that hosted the world’s great pre-classical civilizations.
Sindh has been ruled by many and it had a hardship as a colony of aliens. History has been not found so clear, but the recent history begins with Rai Sahasi and Chuch Dynasties.
The Chuch Dynasty was also called as the Brahmin dynasty. The last ruler was Raja Dahir, the younger son of Chuch was born in 663 AD.
Raja Dahir ascended the throne upon the death of his uncle Chander. Sindh Dynasty was ruled over territories that include the parts of Modern-day Afganistan, Balochistan, Iran, Pakistan and parts of Punjab.
Eight years later, Kannauj’s emperor Ramal had invaded Dahir’s kingdom. With initial losses, Ramal had taken the Aror region and he allied himself with Alafi, the Arab.
Alafi and his warriors, who were exiled from the Umayyad Caliphate, got recruited. They led Dahir’s armies to repel the invading forces and to remain as valued members of his court.
However, Alafi served as a military advisor but, refused to take a higher position in a battle field. As a result, he had later obtained a pardon from the Caliph.
Modern Sri Lanka had been stolen!
The oldest chronicles of the Arab conquest of Sindh – for the expedition by the governor of Basra, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, against Raja Dahir, was a pirate who had raid off the coast of Debal, resulted in gifts to the Caliph from the king of Serendib (modern Sri Lanka) was stolen and that was the primary reason to be cited in the Chach Nama.
The Chuch Nama reported that, “As soon as he heard the matter of Hajjaj, he wrote a letter to the Raja Dahir about unsuccessful resolution, which was resulted in a launch of military expedition.”
Further, in addition to protect their maritime interests, the reasons attributed to the Umayyad interest in gaining the Makran, Balochistan and Sindh regions led to the participation of armies from Sindh alongside Persians in various battles such as Nahawand, Salasal and Qadisiyyah and the granting of refugee to fleeing rebel chieftains.
There is another untold story!
When Raja Dahir, who had fallen out of favour with Hajjaj taken asylum in Sindh, refused to hand over some Arab exiles. Al-Hajjaj’s sent a powerful army of soldiers commanded by his nephew Muhammad Bin Qasim in order to take revenge.
Under the aegis of Muhammad bin Qasim, Hajjaj’s campaign was launched. In 711 CE, on the orders of Al-Hajjaj, Bin Qasim attacked Debal.
From Debal, Bin-Qasim moved on to Nerum for supplies. The Buddhist governor of the city had acknowledged it as a tributary state of the Caliphate after the first campaign of Hajjaj and capitulated to Bin-Qasim.
Muhammad Bin Qasim defeated Dahir and captured his eastern territories for the Umayyad Caliphate by the support of various tribes. The Jats, Meds, Bhuttos and Buddhist rulers of Nerun, Bajhra, Kaka Kolak and Swistan stood up as an infantry to Bin Qasim’s predominantly cavalry army.
Moving his forces to its eastern banks, Dahir then tried to prevent Qasim from crossing the Indus River. However, Qasim crossed and defeated the forces at Jitor led by Jaisiah, Son of Dahir.
In 712, Qasim fought Dahir at Aror, near modern Nawabshah and killed him. After Dahir was killed in the battle of Aror on the banks of Indus River, his head was cut-off and sent to Hajjaj bin Yousuf!
“We have conquered Sindh after enormous trouble.
Muhammad-bin-Qasim’s masterly strategy betrayed Dahir.
Rejoice, the evil doers are disgraced!
Their wealth has been brought away.
They are now solitary and brittle as eggs and their women, fair and fragrant as musk-deer, are now asleep in our harems!”
A courtier noted in his literature when Dahir’s bleeding head reached the court of Hajjaj.
Raja Dahir’s wife and other women of the household committed Jauhar rather than being captured alive by the invaders. Unfortunately, the invaders captured Dahir’s two daughters, Suray Devi and Premala Devi.
The Chach Nama attributes the death of Qasim to these brave girls who had been taken captive during the invasion. Later, they had been sent as gifts to the Khalifa for his harem in Damascus. But, the sisters tricked the Kaliph and made him to believe that Bin-Qasim had violated them before sending them as gifts. As a result of this subterfuge, Bin Qasim was wrapped and stitched in oxen hides, and returned to Syria, which was resulted in his death en route from suffocation.
The Khalifa is recorded to have been filled with remorse and ordered the sisters buried alive in wall, when he had discovered the deceit of two girls.
And, this is how the Chuch dynasty has ended with the footprints of Raja Dahir and his brave daughters.