The biggest misconception according to me is about the partition of INDIA and PAKISTAN. Yes, you heard right. Most Indians believe that the partition was caused due to the policy of ‘divide and rule’ by East India Company and Muslim League helped them. But the truth is British govt never wanted India to be partitioned, what could they gain from this?
It all started in 1935 when the Government of India Act was passed in the British Parliament. According to this, free and fair election held in India and Congress won by 3/4 seats while Muslim League got only 1/4. Hence, Congress had to form a govt under the British. And the Muslim league was to be in opposition.
Muslim league’s leader, ‘Quaid E Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah’ never wanted democracy in India, because according to them, democracy is the rule of the majority and Muslims were in the minority, so they were never going to get any part in govt, and their people would suffer forever.
Therefore, they demanded Pakistan. To avoid this situation, Congress allowed few members of the muslim league in govt, but the Muslim League demanded either the Prime Ministry or Home Ministry. At last, Liaquat Ali Khan (first prime minister of Pakistan) became the finance minister.
But the problem never ended. Liaquat Ali Khan imposed 25-30% tax in the first financial year, creating trouble for the capitalist and rich classes of India. Since they were supporting the National Movement by providing funds, the capitalist classes were terribly annoyed by the Muslim league.
On the other hand, the British came up with a new solution: Cripps’ Commission. According to it, India would consist of three states according to the population of ethnic groups:
1. Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, etc. (Muslim majority) [Bombay]
2. The United Province, Bombay, Orissa, etc. (Hindu majority) [Madras]
3. Bihar, Assam etc. (Bong majority) [Bengal]
These three states would have separate constitutions and state govts. under the central govt. (like the USA).
But the Congress refused, according to them Muslim league would still be the nuisance, so they allowed the formation of Pakistan, leaving India with one single major party : Congress.
Freedom at Midnight
Book by Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins.